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Table 3 Heart rate (beat/min) changes in the study groups (data are presented as mean ± SD)

From: Dexmedetomidine versus lidocaine as an adjuvant to general anesthesia for elective abdominal gynecological surgeries

  Group C Group L Group D
Baseline 86.14 ± 9.73 84.23 ± 11.45 82.87 ± 12.67
After study drug infusion 85.33 ± 10.56 81.44 ± 12.94 74. 32 ± 9.23· ·¡
After anesthesia induction 80.56 ± 9.32 73.53 ± 10.44* 68.46 ± 7.45·
1 min after intubation 96.32 ± 13.45 82.47 ± 12.26* 75.63 ± 9.72·
15 min 89.44 ± 11.97 75.85 ± 10.68* 70.83 ± 8.63·
30 min 83.76 ± 10.63 72.93 ± 11.87* 69.74 ± 8.54·
45 min 81.32 ± 11.43 71.34 ± 9.55* 67.59 ± 7.21·
60 min 84.43 ± 9.89 72.89 ± 10.94* 68.47 ± 8.35·
75 min 82.55 ± 10.78 72.26 ± 9.63* 69.35 ± 8.76·
90 min 84.18 ± 9.84 73.23 ± 10.76* 68.75 ± 8.44·
1 min after extubation 94.67 ± 11.73 80.85 ± 12.68* 74.85 ± 9.68·
Upon arrival to PACU 88.62 ± 9.25 76.23 ± 10.73* 70.64 ± 8.73·
  1. *Statistically significant (P value < 0.05) (group L versus group C)
  2. ·Statistically significant (P value < 0.05) (group D versus group C)
  3. ·¡Statistically significant (P value < 0.05) (group D versus group L)
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