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Table 2 Groningen distress rating scale (GDRS) (Chau et al., 2019)

From: Comparative study between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal ketamine as a premedication for anxiolysis and sedation before pediatric general anesthesia

1 Calm
2 Mild distress
3 Serious distress, in control
4 Severe distress, out of control
5 Panic