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Table 1 Relationship between ICU and hospital stay and risk factors (frequency (percentage) of categorical variables; mean ± SD of numerical variables showing normal distribution; median values (Min–Max) of numerical variables not normally distributed)

From: Effect of treatment applied in sepsis on intensive care unit and hospital stay: how effective are albumin/steroid/vasopressor agents?

Risk Factors ICU
Length of Stay
≤ 5 Days
ICU
Length of Stay
> 5 Days
  Hospital Length of Stay
≤ 24 Days
Hospital Length of Stay
> 24 Days
 
Median (Min–Max)
Mean ± SD
n (%)
Median (Min–Max)
Mean ± SD
n (%)
p Median (Min–Max)
Mean ± SD
n (%)
Median (Min–Max)
Mean ± SD
n (%)
p
Number of patients 231 (%50.00) 231 (%50.00)   238 (%51.52) 224 (%48.48)  
Age (year) 74 (19–97) 76 (22–95) 0.529 76 (22–97) 74 (19–94) 0.122
Gender Male 136 (%58.87) 141 (%61.04) 0.704 137 (%57.56) 140 (%62.50) 0.297
Female 95 (%41.13) 90 (%38.96) 101 (%42.44) 84 (%37.50)
BMI (kg/m2) 22.23 (7.70–38.56) 22.04 (11.39–49.50) 0.471 22.28 (7.70–41.42) 21.88 (11.39–49.50) 0.122
Number of accompanying diseases 1 (0–3) 1 (0–5) 0.231 1 (0–5) 1 (0–4) 0.571
SOFA score 5 (0–15) 9 (1–18) <0.001 6 (0–17) 8 (0–18) <0.001
APACHE II score 16 (2–41) 20 (5–42) <0.001 16 (2–40) 21 (4–42) <0.001
GCS score 15 (3–15) 14 (3–15) <0.001 14 (3–15) 14 (3–15) 0.004
Body temperature (°C ) 37.8 (21.2–42.0) 37.5 (27.1–41.6) 0.014 37.9 (35.1–42.0) 37.5 (21.2–40.7) 0.003
Pulse rate (bpm)a 104.93 ± 23.62 106.01 ± 22.35 0.612 104.04 ± 22.20 106.99 ± 23.73 0.168
MAP (mmHg) 82.67 (29.67–156.67) 74.67 (32.33–157.00) 0.001 83.67 (44.00–156.67) 75 (29.67–157.00) <0.001
Respiratory rate/min 24 (6–42) 24 (6–50) 0.687 24 (6–50) 24 (6–44) 0.822
Number of leukocytes × 10^3/mm3 11.90 (0.30–43.30) 11.50 (0.10–73.30) 0.986 11.80 (1.10–54.30) 11.65 (0.10–73.30) 0.942
HCT (%)a 35.09 ± 6.67 34.48 ± 7.21 0.347 35.75 ± 6.07 33.74 ± 7.65 0.002
Platelet count × 10^4/mm3 17.5 (1.2–63.7) 14.7 (0.7–73.3) 0.002 16.8 (1.2–54.8) 15.05 (0.7–73.3) 0.259
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.04 (0.30–10.25) 1.23 (0.13–11.02) 0.011 1.08 (0.30–11.02) 1.17 (0.13–9.89) 0.121
Blood glucose (mg/dl) 150.50 (53–819) 154.50 (11–1706) 0.964 152 (33–927) 152 (11–1706) 0.889
Na (mmol/l) 136 (117–158) 137 (110–175) 0.002 136 (118–174) 137 (110–175) 0.379
K (mmol/l) 3.9 (2–8.4) 4.1 (2–9) 0.091 3.9 (2.3–8.4) 4.1 (2–9) 0.203
Bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.9 (0.1–22.0) 0.9 (0.1–15.7) 0.458 0.9 (0.1–15.7) 0.9 (0.1–22.0) 0.991
pH 7.41 (6.67–7.74) 7.39 (6.81–7.56) 0.002 7.41 (6.67–7.74) 7.39 (6.81–7.58) 0.012
Lactic acid (mmol/l) 2.20 (0–30.50) 2.40 (0–28.00) 0.030 2.40 (0–30.50) 2.20 (0–28.00) 0.478
PaO2/FiO2 ratio 277.14 (6.29–3176.19) 206 (19.94–1388) <0.001 256 (6.29–3176.19) 236.88 (19.94–1388) 0.018
C–reactive protein (mg/dl) 10.56 (0.03–61.89) 13.59 (0.01–45.14) 0.128 9.84 (0.03–46.70) 15.34 (0.01–61.89) <0.001
Procalcitonin (ng/ml) 7.94 (0.18–205.55) 10 (0–459.14) 0.820 7.33 (0.19–223.48) 10 (0–459.14) 0.398
Use of albumin No 212 (%91.77) 172 (%74.78) <0.001 216 (%91.14) 168 (%75) <0.001
Yes 19 (%8.23) 58 (%25.22) 21 (%8.86) 56 (%25)
Application of vasopressor agents No 156 (%68.42) 87 (%37.83) <0.001 166 (%70.34) 77 (%34.68) <0.001
Yes 72 (%31.58) 143 (%62.17) 70 (%29.66) 145 (%65.32)
Steroid use No 209 (%90.48) 177 (%76.96) <0.001 214 (%90.30) 172 (%76.79) <0.001
Yes 22 (%9.52) 53 (%23.04) 23 (%9.70) 52 (%23.21)
Immunosuppressive use No 224 (%96.97) 222 (%96.94) >0.999 232 (%97.48) 214 (%96.40) 0.592
Yes 7 (%3.03) 7 (%3.06) 6 (%2.52) 8 (%3.60)
Time between diagnosis of sepsis and source control (h) b NDD 115 (%50.44) 136 (%59.13) 0.004 136 (%57.87) 115 (%51.57) 0.405
<12 100 (%43.86) 69 (%30.00) 80 (%34.04) 89 (%39.91)
12–24 10 (%4.39) 13 (%5.65) 13 (%5.53) 10 (%4.48)
24<= 3 (%1.32) 12 (%5.22) 6 (%2.55) 9 (%4.04)
Time between diagnosis of sepsis and onset of antibiotics (h) b None 1 (%0.44) 3 (%1.36) 0.061 1 (%0.43) 3 (%1.40) 0.241
<1 73 (%32.02) 90 (%40.91) 78 (%33.48) 85 (%39.53)
1–3 120 (%52.63) 90 (%40.91) 119 (%51.07) 91 (%42.33)
3<= 34 (%14.91) 37 (%16.82) 35 (%15.02) 36 (%16.74)
The need for MV in the first 24 hours No 169 (%73.16) 101 (%44.30) <0.001 181 (%76.69) 89 (%39.91) <0.001
Yes 62 (%26.84) 127 (%55.70) 55 (%23.31) 134 (%60.09)
  1. BMI body mass index, GCS: Glasgow coma scale, MAP mean arterial pressure, MV mechanical ventilation, NDD no drainage or debridement
  2. aNormally distributed data
  3. bFisher exact test results