The world has been facing the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The novel coronavirus primarily affects the lungs but also affects multiple organ systems including the cardiovascular system causing myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Cardiomyopathy has been reported in patients with COVID-19; however, prognosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy in a patient with COVID-19 is still unexplored. More knowledge is required to understand the incidence of cardiomyopathy due to novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
We report a case of peripartum cardiomyopathy gravida 2 parity 2 COVID-19 confirmed patient who underwent an emergency preterm lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) for severe pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and landed up in acute congestive cardiac failure with pulmonary oedema. A postpartum 32 years female presented to our institute, a dedicated COVID-19 hospital with tachycardia, hypertension, anasarca, tachypnea with desaturation on room air. She had undergone emergency caesarean section for severe preeclampsia with intrauterine growth retardation. On post-operative day 2 (POD2), she complained of shortness of breath. On POD 3 she tested positive RT-PCR for COVID-19 infection. She responded to treatment with steroids. However, on POD6, She developed severe pulmonary oedema with poor ejection fraction necessitating endotracheal intubation and pressure control ventilation. Congestive cardiac failure was managed with diuretics and digoxin. Gradually oxygenation improved. She was electively ventilated for 3 days. Gradually, ejection fraction improved with the resolution of B lines. On the 9th POD, after a successful spontaneous breathing trial, she was extubated and non-invasive ventilation with bi-level positive airway pressure was attached. The patient was gradually tapered off of the non-invasive ventilation over 2 days. On the 11th post-operative day, she was maintaining oxygen saturation on nasal prongs and was sent to the ward.
We recommend early use of bedside lung ultrasonography; echocardiography and close cardiovascular monitoring in severe COVID-19 infected pregnant patients who present with shortness of breath, tachypnea, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and previous cardiac abnormalities for expedite management and improved prognosis. An ideal case scenario for extubation may not be present, non-invasive ventilation with bi-level positive airway pressure post-extubation helps in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy.